Lung cancer at an early stage may not cause any symptoms but when the tumor has grown, it may manifest itself by the following signs and symptoms:
There are no reliable blood tests that can detect lung cancer at an early stage.
Screening tests such as sputum cytology and chest x-ray may detect cancer at an earlier stage.
Staging is a term used to describe the size and extent of spread of the tumor. The stage of the cancer enables the doctor to choose the best treatment for the patient as well as advise the patient on the most likely outcome of treatment.
For early stages of squamous cell cancer, adenocarcinoma and large cell cancer, surgery is an important mode of treatment.
Chemotherapy or drug treatment is the mainstay of treatment for small cell cancer and later stages of the other cancers. Radiotherapy or cobalt therapy is another treatment modality and may be used alone or in combination with surgery and chemotherapy.
Patients will undergo various tests to measure lung function. His general health status will also be assessed to determine if he can withstand and survive surgery.
There are four major kinds of cancer that can develop in the lungs and each can be recognized by its appearance when examined under a microscope.
These types are:
Doctors often use the term "COPD" or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to refer to "Emphysema" and "Chronic Bronchitis." These two diseases frequently occur together since they usually have the same cause, that is, cigarette smoking, and have the same effect, which is obstruction of the air passages in the lungs.
Chronic Bronchitis is a result of repeated and long term swelling and irritation of the lining of the bronchi (tubes in the lungs carrying oxygen in and bringing carbon dioxide out of the lungs). A combination of this swelling and excess amount of mucus production results in narrowing of air passageway, and eventually, permanent damage occurs.
In Emphysema, the air sacs in the lungs are permanently enlarged and their walls are destroyed. As air becomes trapped in these sacs, they press against the adjacent air passages - in effect causing obstruction. In addition, the air passages tend to collapse because of structural abnormalities in their walls. As a result, the lungs do not work efficiently and breathing becomes difficult.
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of COPD. Exposures in the work place to certain dusts (e.g. silica, coal, asbestos, cotton or grain) and cadmium may contribute to the development of the disease. Exposure to outdoor air pollution like sulfur, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, may also contribute to lung damage. Emphysema can also be caused by a genetic deficiency of a-1-antitrypsin.
For chronic bronchitis, cough and excessive mucus/phlegm production are early and common symptoms. Wheezing and difficulty in breathing develop later.
For Emphysema, difficulty in breathing is the most important complaint. This may only be episode at first, but may worsen over time such that a short walk or any movement may bring in breathlessness. The extra work of breathing may also strain the heart and cause heart failure.
Danger signs for which the patient should seek help are the following:
A complete history of your symptoms and a thorough physical examination are important. A chest x-ray film will show abnormalities suggestive of COPD. Other sophisticated tests such as spirometry, nitrogen wash-out studies are also available to confirm the diagnosis.
A person with the disease does not develop the disease suddenly. There is a history of repeated bouts of colds and cough, with the cough becoming persistent. The most common complaint that brings the patient to a doctor is the increasing episodes of shortness of breath, which may be misinterpreted as asthma or heart disease.
No. One cannot get it from someone else. COPD is usually a product of various insults to the lung like cigarette smoke, occupational dusts and outdoor ambient air pollutants.
Males in the 50 to 70 year age group have the highest incidence. Women can get COPD too but not as often as men. Men diagnosed to have COPD usually have a heavy and long history of smoking. Frequently, they live in areas where air pollution is a problem.
Although COPD cannot be cured because the changes have become irreversible, it usually can be controlled, and symptoms relieved. Pharmacologic therapy includes bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics and mucolytic expectorants. Non-pharmacologic maneuvers include smoking cessation, special exercises and a modified diet.
COPD is a serious disease. It has damaged your lungs. It can affect your heart. You cannot treat it yourself, seek professional help.
Ang TB ay isang impeksyong sanhi ng bakteryang Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sa baga karaniwan ang sakit na ito pero pwede ring maapektuhan ang ibang bahagi ng katawan.
Dura ang karaniwang pinagmumulan ng mikrobyo ng TB na lumulutang sa hangin. May mga taong nagkaka-TB kapag nakalalanghap ng mga mikrobyong ito. Mayroon namang hindi. Sa ilang tao, ang mga mikrobyo ay nananatili muna nang matagal sa mga baga bago dumami ang mga ito. Ang may mahinang pangangatawan dahil sa kakulangan ng sustansya, dahil sa katandaan o sakit na gaya ng AIDS ay mas madaling nagkaka-TB.
Kung nakakaramdam ka ng mga nasabing tanda at sintomas, kumunsulta ka agad sa duktor at ipasuri mo ang iyong plema nang tatlong ulit para sa mikrobyo ng TB.
Hindi. Karamihan sa mga pasyente ay maaaring gamutin sa bahay maliban sa mga:
Kailangan din bang uminom ng gamot ang mga kaanak at ibang kasama sa bahay upang maiwasan na masapian ng TB? Kung kailangan, anu-anong gamot?
Oo. Ang maagang panggagamot upang makaiwas ay dapat gawin sa mga bata kung sila ay:
Binibigyan sila ng Isoniazid (INH) 10 mg/kg na iniinom nang minsanan araw-araw sa 12 buwan.
Lahat ng kasama sa bahay na may malakas na reaksyon sa tuberculin skin test (8 mm o higit pa) at may gulang na 18 hanggang 35 taon ay maaaring uminom ng gamot upang makaiwas sa sakit. Ang ipinapayong rehimen ay Isoniazid (INH) at pangalawang gamot (maaaring Rifampicin Ethambutol). Ang INH-Ethambutol ay iinumin araw-araw sa loob ng anim (6) na buwan samantalang ang rehimeng INH-Rifampicin ay iinumin nang apat (4) na buwan.
Unang dalawang buwan: Rifampicin, INH, Pyrazinamide at Ethambutol (o Streptomycin) araw-araw.
Susunod na apat na buwan: Rifampicin at INH araw-araw.
Ano ang mangyayari kung ititigil ko ang aking gamot pagkalipas ng isang buwan? Ano ang gagawin ko?
Ang mga mikrobyo ng TB ay magsisimula na namang dumami nang mabilis at lilitaw na naman ang mga tanda mo ng tisis. Ang mga mikrobyo ng TB ay maaaring lumakas laban sa mga gamot at magiging mahirap na gamutin kang muli.
Magsimula ka uling maggamot.
Huwag kang mag-alala. Ang INH, Rifampicin at Ethambutol ay ligtas. Hindi inirerekomenda ang Streptomycin dahil maaari itong maging sanhi ng pagkabingi ng sanggol. Magdahan-dahan sa paggamit ng Pyrazinamide dahil wala pang sapat na karanasan sa gamot na ito sa mga buntis.
Oo. Napakaliit ng panganib sa sanggol ng gamot sa TB. Gayunpaman, dapat tanungin ang ina at suriin lagi ang sanggol ukol sa mga tanda ng pagkakalason. Pinapayuhan ang ina na uminom ng gamot pagkatapos lamang magpasuso. Gumamit ng gatas sa bote sa susunod na pagpapasuso pagkatapos uminom ng gamot. Iwasang magpasuso kung ang sanggol ay ginagamot din sa TB.
Pwede, pero mainam ding magpahinga muna nang isa o dalawang buwan hanggang bumuti ang iyong pakiramdam.
Maaaring maramdaman mong gusto mong maduwal o mahilo pagkatapos lumunok ng gamot. Gayunpaman, unti-unti kang masasanay dito. Kung makakaranas ka ng panlalabo ng paningin, panghihina ng pandinig, pananakit ng kasu-kasuan o makakapansin ng paninilaw ng mga mata, itigil mo ang mga gamot at kumunsulta agad sa iyong duktor.
PAALALA sa pasyente
Asthma is a condition that effects the size and shape of the air passage in the lungs and leads to breathing difficulties.
During an asthma episode:
These changes in the airways block the flow of air, making it hard to breathe.
The main symptoms of asthma are:
Not all people with asthma wheeze. For some, coughing may be the only sypmtom of asthma. Coughing often occurs during the night or after exercise.
The basic cause of asthma is not yet known. People with asthma have airways that are irritable or very sensitive to things that do not bother people who do not have asthma. These things are called triggers. If you are an asthmatic and you are near or come in contact with triggers, they may start an asthma episode. Your airways become swollen, produce too much mucus, and tighten up.
Common triggers for asthmas episodes include the following:
Asthma cannot be completely cured, but it can be controlled. You should expect nothing less.
Serious episodes seldom occur for most asthmatic but it is best to avoid or prevent them by monitoring your asthma, making regular visits to the doctor and by taking medications as prescribed.
Death from asthma is possible. It can be avoided by careful monitoring and control of your asthma.
Monitoring your asthma can be done by using a simple device called a peak flow meter and by using an asthma diary to record your daily symptoms.
A peak flow meter is a device that measures how well air moves out of your lungs. During an asthma episode, the airways of your lungs begin to narrow slowly. The peak flow meter can be used to find out if there is narrowing in the airways hours -- even days -- before you have any symptoms of asthma.
By taking your medicine early (before symptoms) you may be able to stop the episode quickly and avoid a serious episode of asthma.
To prevent asthma episodes, you will have to work closely with your doctor to:
To control asthma episodes when they occur, you will have to work out an asthma control plan with your doctor that includes:
With proper treatment, most people with asthma will be able to:
Knowing as much as you can about your asthma will make it easier for you to lead a completely normal and active life.
Asthma is not frightening diagnosis and the condition can be monitored and controlled to allow the asthmatic to lead a completely normal lifestyle.
Asthma can be controlled if you make sure that you:
Most importantly, understand what asthma is and learn to cope with it.